Way to Independence

Turkish Nation preferred to be a modern state politically and legally and a developed and civilized community socially with the national struggle under the tough conditions and Turkish Revolution. The ideal to establish a state for the purpose of the revolution was brought forward when Ottoman Empire actually came to an end and became a history. Turkish Nation made sacrifices for the sake of establishing this state under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.

Starting from Tripoli where Mustafa Kemal Pasha showed his superiority in establishing commandership and organization, the way to victory won by Turkish Nation under the leadership of Atatürk is described briefly below.

Italy declare war to Ottoman Empire on 29 September 1911 in order to capture Tripoli which is now known as Libya and Benghazi in Northern Africa late in 19 century. Some of the lieutenants of Ottoman army voluntarily went to the front in to defend Tripoli of which invasion was caused deep sorrow in Istanbul. Mustafa Kemal and Enver Pasha who were volunteered lieutenants sneaked into the region and organized the public and won important success in Derna, Tobruk and Benghazi. Mustafa Kemal went to Tripoli which was his first military achievement with the nickname of “Şerif”.

Tripolitanian War ended with the Treaty of Ouchy executed between Ottoman - Italian delegates when Balkan War broke out on 15-18 October 1912. According to the treaty, Tripoli and Benghazi became Italian colonies. Volunteered lieutenants returned to Istanbul to crusade in Balkan war.

Even though Tripolitanian War was a hopeless war as mentioned Mustafa Kemal, engaging with this war provided many benefits in many ways and he got promoted to Commander in the combat area. Tripolitanian War is the first place that Mustafa Kemal showed his superiority in establishing commandership and organization.

The main reason of Balkan Wars made in two stages was the wish of Balkan States to enlarge their territories, to stop the enlargement of Austria-Hungary and the foundation of Balkan League to achieve the purposes of Russia in Ottoman Empire. In 1912, Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia and Monte Negro attacked Ottoman Empire in order to dismiss Turks in Balkans. Ottoman Empire which sustained a defeat lost territories; Greece invaded Thessaloniki and Albania declared its independence. Following the war, Thrace and Edirne were given Bulgaria, Southern Macedonia, Thessaloniki and Crete were given Greece, Northern and Central Macedonia were given Serbia and Silistra was given Romania with the Treaty of London executed in London on 30 May 1913. Ottoman and Bulgarian borders were withdrawn to Midye-Enez line.

When Bulgaria which could not take what it wants in the 1st Balkan war attacked Greece and Serbia, Ottoman Empire used this opportunity and attacked Bulgaria. In the 2nd Balkan War which ended with Treaty of Constantinople on 29 September 1913, Edirne was given back Ottoman Empire and Meriç River was agreed as Turkish-Bulgarian border.

Mustafa Kemal served as Bolayır Executive Officer in the 2nd Balkan War. With this war, Mustafa Kemal knew Balkan policy and situation well and these wars were effective in his decision-making about Balkans in the upcoming periods.

In World War 1 which was one of the most bloody wars of the world history, Ottoman Empire waged war against the Allies, i.e. Britain, France, Russia and Italy by taking side with Central Powers, i.e. Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria. In the first years of the war, Monte Negro, Serbia and Romania and in the subsequent years, USA, Japan, Greece, Belgium, Portugal engaged with the War on the side of the Allies.

Ottoman Empire which was defeated in Tripolitanian and Balkan wars and lost mass territories in Europe believed that Russia wanted to capture the Straits especially in Balkan wars and needed the alliance of a powerful state in order to diminish Russian danger. In World War 1, Ottoman Empire recruited 2.900.000 soldiers. During the war which lasted for 4 years, 400.000 soldiers were martyred and 1.050.000 soldiers were injured or captured. Ottoman Empire fought Russia in Eastern (Caucasian) Front, Britain in Canal, Iraq, Syria - Palestine (Sina-Palestine), Hejaz-Yemen Fronts and the forces of Allies in Çanakkale Front. Also, Ottoman Empire aimed at helping his allies in Galicia, Macedonia and Romania Fronts which were out of the borders.

During World War 1, the only front in which Ottoman Empire won territory was Caucasian (Eastern) front. In Canal, Iraq, Syria-Palestine, Hejaz-Yemen fronts, British forces were defeated. Ottoman Empire won a great victory in Çanakkale Front. As a result of this victory, Russia could not get help and the tsarist regime was removed and substituted by Soviet Russia. After World War 1 which was ended with the defeat of Ottoman Empire and its allies, Ottoman Empire agreed Mondros Ceasefire Agreement of which terms were very severe. This agreement which was executed on 30 October 1918 anticipated the breakdown of Ottoman Empire and gave invasion right to the Allies in any region of Ottoman Empire for any reason which threatened their safety.

The foreigner invasions and interferences which started immediately after Mondros Ceasefire Agreement and opened the way of Sevres caused Turkish Independence War. Independent Turkey was established with National Struggle which lasted for years and won with great sacrifices under the leadership of Atatürk from the ruins of a great empire.

World War 1 and Fronts where Mustafa Kemal Pasha Fought One of the important Turkish lieutenants fought in World War 1 is Mustafa Kemal Pasha. Mustafa Kemal Pasha took charge in Eastern (Caucasian) Front, Syria-Palestine Front and Çanakkale Front in World War 1 actively and efficiently.

Çanakkale Front was one of the sharpest and largest fronts of World War 1. In this front which was opened by the Allies to help Russia, Ottoman Empire suffered loss of many soldiers. Ottoman Empire which had a defensive war in the strict sense won a great victory and taught the enemy that they cannot pass Çanakkale. In this large front, Mustafa Kemal undertook Arıburnu Group Command and promoted to Lieutenant with his outstanding successes. Çanakkale Front was effective to get Mustafa Kemal known. Mustafa Kemal who came into prominence in this war became a soldier who was influential in other fronts and wars.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk fought against Russians in Diyarbakır, Muş and Bitlis fronts and Armenians allied with Russians as Corps Commander on 11 March 1916. The enemies were defeated in Bitlis on 8 August 1916 and in Muş on 14 May 1917 and these regions were cleaned up. On 1 April 1916, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was given the title of Brigadier General thanks to his achievements in Diyarbakır, Muş and Bitlis which was known as Eastern (Caucasian) Front. Russian forces were withdrawn after they were defeated.

Britain captured Suez Canal in 1914 and attacked to Gaza in 1917. The wars herein were known as First and Second Gaza Wars. After Turkish victory, Britain got defeated in Gaza. After defeated in here, Britain strengthened its military power with reinforcements and increased the pressure on Palestine Front. Within this period of time, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk who was assigned as the Commander of 7th Army Commander resigned upon confliction with Yildirim Army Group Commander General Falkenhayn.

Britain attacked with 138.000 soldiers on 24 October 1917 and won Beersheba-Gazze war. In 1918, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk returned to the 7th Army Commandership which he resigned and command the army against Britain. Britain increased the number of soldiers up to 460.000 and captured Palestine.

In this front, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk fought against British soldiers and armed Arabic gangs. Finally, he could stop British soldiers and assigned as the Commander of Yildirim Army Group after Mondros Ceasefire Agreement on 31 October 1918.

The War of Independence, which started by the arrival of Mustafa Kemal to Samsun on 19 May 1919 after invasion of Izmir by Greeks on 5 May 1919, provided a “unity” with the congresses held in Erzurum, Sivas and Amasya in Anatolia.

The Government Decree including assignment of Mustafa Kemal Pasha as the 9th Army Troops Inspector was approved by Padishah Vahdeddin.

The assignment order of Mustafa Kemal Pasha was published in Takvim-i Vekayi.

Izmir was invaded with Greek Army with 12.000 men, with the support of Allies, and the first armed resistance began.

Mustafa Kemal Pasha left his home in Sisli and took the road with SS Bandırma on 16 May 1919.

Hüsrev Gerede who was with Mustafa Kemal Pasha on the way to Samsun stated the followings about Samsun trip. “17 May 1919, the weather is bad. We always lay down on our beds. Mitralyöz Arif, Dr. Refik, Topçu Kemal, we are all in one cabin. Our cabin looks like a cage for wild animals. Sometimes, we raise our heads and say a few words. We berthed Inebolu around 9:30. But we had a bad night on 17-18 May. On 18 May, we entered Sinop harbour around noon. Fortunately, lurching is stopped. We got out of our beds. We shaved, had bath, took fresh air on the deck and sunbathed; the minty juice of Dr. Refik brought to our senses. Liva Governor Mazhar Tevfik Bey who came with us and landed around 3 o’clock brought us information in writing about invasion of Izmir from Sinop. Since 13 May, the indications about invasion of Izmir were started to be seen, Redd-i Ilhak intervention came to life and the invasion started on 15 May. After firefight in Izmir, Greek troops forced to leave the city.”

Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his staff arrived Samsun on 19 May 1919 in the morning. Major Mahmut Ekrem Bey laid alongside of the ship with a small boat and Ekrem walked to Mustafa Kemal Pasha who was on the deck and made a formal salute and said: “Welcome Pasha”. Thus, the one who welcomed Mustafa Kemal Pasha first in Samsun is Mahmut Ekrem Bey. Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his staff were welcomed by the public lined up on both sides of the pier and a battalion whose guns were seized by the invader forces. Mustafa Kemal checked into Mantika Palas Hotel. The flag of 9th Army Inspectorship was displayed in the balcony of the hotel. His staff checked into Karadeniz Hotel. After resting for a while, he went to the municipality and discussed the situation and defending of the country with the municipal council members. Mustafa Kemal Pasha informed the related authorities about his arrival as the first thing on 19 May. Within this frame, in the encoded telegram he sent to Sadaret Chamberlain, Ministry of Internal Affairs and War and Erkan-ı Harbiye-i Umumiye Riyaseti, he said “I have arrived Samsun at eight o’clock today and I have taken up the position given, kindly submitted for your information”. Another telegram text containing similar information was sent to the Civil and Military authorities within scope of his task and authority. On the same day, he asked the reports to be prepared about the public order in the regions within scope of their responsibilities from Sivas, Van, Erzurum, Trabzon, Ankara, Kastamonu, Mamuretülaziz (Elazığ), Diyarbakır Governorships, Erzincan Autonomous Governorship, 15th Army in Erzurum and 20th Corps in Ankara to be sent via telegram as soon as possible. As it is understood from the telegram, the first operations of Mustafa Kemal Pasha were to take precautions related to public order problems in Samsun and surrounding area. He proposed the Government to assign Hamid Bey who was a former Undersecretary of Internal Affairs as Samsun Governor on the grounds that the current governor did not take precautions against attacks of Rum gangs to the Muslim public in Samsun and surrounding area. Until the assignment procedures were completed, he temporarily assigned the 3rd Corps Commander Lieutenant Refet (Bele) Bey as his deputy.

Mustafa Kemal Pasha stated in a letter sent to Sadaret Chamberlain that the invasion of Izmir by Greeks caused deep sorrow for the public and the army, that the army and the public could not tolerate such malicious acts, that he could keep calm because he believed that the Padishah and the Government would protect the public with their final interventions and operations. In another telegram he sent to Sadaret Chamberlain on the same day, he stated that British soldiers acted in contrary to the provisions of the treaty. As Mustafa Kemal Pasha stated in the telegram, Britain sent 200 soldiers to Samsun on 9 March 1919 in defiance of the provisions of the treaty. They sent 100 soldiers more on 17 May 1919. As it was understood from the personal cards they had, there were two lieutenants with the title of Sivas inspection lieutenant. They were Lieutenant Richard and Lieutenant Miles. According to the British political representative, some of them was sent to Sivas. According to Mustafa Kemal Pasha, the efficiency and the existence of Ottoman Empire was to be questioned in case Britain sent soldiers and troops to anywhere in Anatolia in defiance of the provisions of the treaty. Doubtlessly, the public would be affected by these actions. In order to prevent such cases, he wanted the Government to prevent behaviors and actions in defiance of the provisions of the treaty and be notified about such political actions.

Mustafa Kemal Pasha stated in his report dated 21 May 1919 that: At the beginning of the mobilization, some gangs which were started separately from Muslims, Rums and Armenians, especially draft dodgers did actions such as robbery and sometimes homicide. These actions had no political purpose at the beginning; however Rum and Armenian gangs were started to be directed to a political purpose during their migration to other regions. When the Russian invasion started, these discriminative gang actions with political purposes which were supported by Russians became very dangerous, however they could not achieve their purposes with the precautions taken. There was no political purpose for establishing Islamic gangs which were active in the region. After ceasefire, the Rum gangs increased their rampages everywhere with the desire of Pontus empire. It is definite that the Rums upholding Pontus empire were directed by the secret society of Rums in Samsun and Rum Metropolitan Bishop Germanos. Such information was confirmed by French Gendarme Lieutenant Favra in Samsun. Favra sent a report containing almost a hundred exaggerated stories related to attacks of Muslims against Christians which was sent to French representatives in Istanbul by the Metropolitan Bishop to Mustafa Kemal in secrecy. It was understood from the researches that the Rums in Russia were forced to migrate to increase Rum population in Samsun and the surrounding area and even some of the gangs secretly landed the seashore in Samsun and the vicinity. Since the soldiers were discharged without taking into consideration of the soldiers necessary for the internal security and the gendarme forces were insufficient, the Rum gangsters became stronger. As of that day, there were 40 Rum gangs approximately in Samsun and the surrounding area. The Muslims suffered by the attacks of the Rum gangs found the remedy to take shelter in Islamic gangs around the region since they were not protected by the local government. As a result, such situation was revealed. The Rum gangs started to threaten and wallop the Muslim public and the gangs started by the Muslims took precautions for defending Muslims in the settlements where the Muslims lived. According to such information in the report, Mustafa Kemal Pasha investigated the case in detail within a short time and revealed the reasons of perturbation in the region clearly. Mustafa Kemal Pasha stated in the same report that he would inform the related authorities as soon as possible about the precautions and their results taken to protect the Muslim public from Rum attacks.

Mustafa Kemal Pasha met with Samsun British Political Representative Lieutenant Horst, the Military Inspection Officer Lieutenant Zolther and the Political Inspection Officer Lieutenant Mill from the general staff on 22 May 1919 and sent his opinions and information he obtained from these meetings to the Sadaret Chamberlain with another report. In the said report, Mustafa Kemal Pasha stated that the issues related to banditry in Samsun were also confirmed by the British representatives in the letter dated 21 May 1919. In reply to the opinions of the British lieutenants that Ottoman Empire could not rule Turkey alone and it needed assistance of the foreign countries for the issue broken out with the invasion of Izmir, he said that the lack of public order in Samsun was started in the years of war by the Greeks. He stated that Russians supported such actions and some of the Greeks was forced to migrate from the region. He also emphasized that the lack of public order in the regions would be eliminated and Turkish nation would not put up with the ruling of foreign countries, if the Greeks quit their political purposes. On the one hand, Mustafa Kemal Pasha maintained the activities related to his task, on the other hand, he exchanged correspondences with his close commander friends related to the situation of the country when he was in Samsun. Hence, he sent an encoded private telegram to 15th Corps Commander Kazım Karabekir Pasha on 21 May 1919. In the telegram, he stated that the situation of the country caused deep sorrow and concern and he believed that working together allowed him to fulfill his last conscientious task towards his nation and his country. For this reason, he knew that he would meet him son, but Samsun and surrounding were getting worse due to insecurity, therefore he would stay for a few days more. Also, during his staying in Samsun, Mustafa Kemal Pasha researched the complaints of some Rums in the region that were sent to Ministries of Internal Affairs and War and stating that Muslim people were disturbing the peace, and found out that these were false charges, and he reported this to prime ministry. Moreover, Mustafa Kemal Pasha closely followed the actions of British soldiers in the region and informed Sadaret and Erkânı Harbiye-i Umumiye Riyaseti via telegram.

Mustafa Kemal Pasha sent a telegram to 20th Corps Commander Ali Fuat Pasha in Ankara and informed him that he came to Samsun. He said he would like to meet with Ali Fuat Pasha more frequently. In general, this information is available in history books. In the telegram, “It has been five days since I came to Samsun. I want to get in contact with you more frequently. I hope you are in a well situation. According to information that we get around Izmir, is it possible that all of our corps can go to Ankara? Safety of Canik’s Brigade is not good. Colonel Refet Bey, who came to Third corps commandership with us, undertook Sovereign Governorship of Canik as proxy. After 1 or 2 days, I will go to Havza for my temporary duty with my quarter members. Before I leave Samsun I am waiting a telegram from you wich can enlighten me.” In the same day, Mustafa Kemal Pasha sent a telegram to 15th Corps Commander Kazım Karabekir Pasha in Erzurum. In this telegram, Mustafa Kemal Pasha emphasized that Izmir occupation should be protested by organizing meetings, and in these events, the army should support and stand with the nation.

Mustafa Kemal Pasha sent a telegram to Presidency of General Staff, claiming that the government was insufficient in providing internal peace of the country as gendarmerie forces were restricted by Allies. Also, to be able provide peace, gendarmerie forces should be increased to at least seventeen thousand and at this point, attention of Allies were required to be attracted.

During his staying in Samsun, Mustafa Kemal Pasha researched causes of this insecurity in the region and reported the measurements to be taken to prime ministry. He also closely followed British political and military representatives’ actions in the region. Mustafa Kemal Pasha sent a telegram to Ministry of War and stated that the reason why he went to Havza is that he would inspect the complaints about disorder in regions such as Vezirköprü, Amasya, Lâdik, Havza in site. So that, the days during which Mustafa Kemal stayed in Samsun ended and Samsun made the history as a city which carried Mustafa Kemal to Anatolia in this historical and important travel.

for Havza. In noon hours, Mustafa Kemal and his quarter members went to Kavak district directorship. He inspired people of Kavak that they should found a Müdafa-i Hukuk. Then, they went to Havza. Mustafa Kemal Pasha was hosted in Mesudiye Hotel and his quarter members were hosted in Mansion of Ali Osman Ağa.

Mustafa Kemal Pasha met with a committee consisting of 7 representatives of Havza people in his office. He held meetings with the committee here and told the though and sad situation of Havza stating that we should not lose hope, we should found a Countrywide Resistance Organization to defend our home and to announce it in all neighbor provinces.

People of Havza founded Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti, leaded by District Governor Fahri Bey and Mayor İbrahim Bey.

People of Havza organized a meeting on Friday after mevlid following prayer in Yörgüç Paşaoğlu Mustafa Bey Mosque, as leaded and requested by Mustafa Kemal Pasha on 30 May 1919, and it is considered as the first meeting of National Struggle. In this meeting, Fuad Bey gave a speech. Fuat Bey emphasized that the enemy occupying Izmir would most probably occupy Samsun and Havza, and it was necessary to arm to prevent this and free Izmir.

In his response to Ministry of War about meetings, Mustafa Kemal Pasha said: “I cannot accept any ability and power to stop national excitement and national demonstrations”.

Meeting was held in Havza. General Milne, one of commanders of allies, sent ultimatum to Istanbul Government about Mustafa Kemal Pasha. Second demonstration was held in Havza. Sıtkı Hodja, who was well-known and respected by the people of Havza gave a speech. In his speech, Sıtkı Hodja said that “Fire is getting bigger. We are on fire! Our only remedy is to taking up arms. Clean your arms! Those who do not have arm, get an axe, those who do not have axe, get a wood, we are going to attack’ First, we will wipe out ungrateful betrayers among us, then the enemies occupying our home!”

Minister of War Şevket Turgut Pasha called Mustafa Kemal Pasha back to Istanbul.

As long as he stayed in Samsun and Havza, Mustafa Kemal Pasha carried out his actings in Istanbul and other parts of Anatolia by telegram. These telegrams included a wide area from Van to Kastamonu, from Trabzon to Diyarbakır which were within authorization scope of military and civilian inspector. Also, Mustafa Kemal Pasha sent telegrams to Istanbul government. These telegrams generally aimed to calm and put off the padishah. With his telegrams sent to Istanbul Government he stated that non-Muslims were not damaged and cases occurring in an environment where Independence and presence of Turkish people were treated are rightful cases.

When Mustafa Kemal Pasha motivated local people to fight against Rum gangs and all the people to free the country as of 25 May 1919, this situation drew attention of Britain. Lieutenant Hurst, who was giving information about Mustafa Kemal Pasha’s activities in Samsun and Havza to British High Commandership in Istanbul, reported the situation to High Commander Admiral Calthrope and Minister of Foreign Affairs Lord Curzon is Istanbul. Moreover, Hurst stated in his report that some Lieutenant besides Mustafa Kemal Pasha went to Anatolia silently. Upon this, British diplomats forced Babı-ı Ali Government to call Mustafa Kemal Pasha back to Istanbul to end his actings in Havza and make them ineffective. Also, British Attache in Istanbul instructed Hurst to follow Mustafa Kemal Pasha’s activities. Therefore, Hurst went to Havza and inspected the district. He met first with Rums and with Mustafa Kemal Pasha. In this meeting, Mustafa Kemal Pasha said that hot springs in here treated his body and he would stay in Havza for a while then go to Amasya and south. Hurst reported the situation in Havza with telegrams to British

In the telegram sent by Mustafa Kemal Pasha to 17th Deputy Corps Commander Colonel Bekir Sami Bey, he stated that “this disastrous result of the country is caused by unorganization and negligence. It is not time to lose hope, we have to create remedies. We have to organize the country excellently. Situation of the world, especially last Caucasian cases are very promising”.

Mustafa Kemal Pasha, who did not obey the call to get back to Istanbul, notified civilian and military authorities that: “I swear on by blessings that I will struggle together with my nation to the end for national independence”.

Mustafa Kemal Pasha would ask Minister of War why he has been called to Istanbul and would report the ones who called him. In the telegram he stated that those who were at Britain’s disposal called him to Istanbul, he would not go, if necessary he would resign on his duty and work for the nation. He said “when I visited you lastly, you said hopefully the nation saves me and itself, now ı see that the nation is awake. It has a strong belief for independence”.

He told Karabekir Pasha in Erzurum that “I am excused to go to Istanbul to be captured by Britain.” He added that Government tried to trick him to go back to Istanbul, and he responded to gain time and to pass the quarter into Anatolia and made some corresponding.

Arrival of Mustafa Kemal Pasha from Havza to Amasya. Mufti Hadji Tevfik Efendi, who was one of the people welcoming Mustafa Kemal Pasha said that “Your honor, all the people of Amasya are at your disposal.” In his response, Mustafa Kemal Pasha said that “We are losing our home, if the enemy sets foot in Samsun, we have to wear our boots, take the hills and defend our home to the last part of land”.

As Mustafa Kemal Pasha came to Havza and called the people for national struggle and created a national consciousness in Turkish people, and led them to organize meetings against occupations, this drew attention of Britain and Britain forced Istanbul Government to call Mustafa Kemal Pasha back to Istanbul. However, Mustafa Kemal Pasha stated in his response to Istanbul Government that he would support national struggle to the end, and if necessary he would resign from his duty and maintain national struggle by participating to people. In the morning, he went from Havza to Amasya.

A circular of Mustafa Kemal Pasha from Amasya to civilian and military authorities in Anatolia: “The unity and the independence of the nation is at great risk. Independence of the nation can be saved only by determination and faith of it. ..."

In general, Mustafa Kemal Pasha found out with telegrams sent from Samsun and Havza that he was agreed with his fellow soldiers in Ankara, Diyarbakır, Erzurum, Van, Trabzon, Konya, Sivas, even Edirne on they should perform their last conscious duty for Turkish Nation. In other words, ideological and emotional parts of Amasya Circular were ready in Samsun. Therefore we can say that Anatolian-based National Struggle of Ataturk “was born in Istanbul, developed in Samsun and started to be implemented in Amasya”..

Mustafa Kemal Pasha resigned from his official duty.

Erzurum Congress convened. Mustafa Kemal was elected as the President of Erzurum Congress.

Sivas Congress convened. Mustafa Kemal was elected as the President of Sivas Congress. >

French invasion of Urfa.

France invaded Maraş.

Representative Council went to Ankara.

Mustafa Kemal chose Ankara as the center of the resistance in Anatolia. Ankara was chosen because it had a advantageous geographical place, railway transportation, communication opportunities and it was close to West Front.

Chamber of Deputies was opened in Istanbul for the last time. Basic lines of Misak-ı Millî was shaped in Erzurum and Sivas congresses. The assembly, which started to work in Istanbul on 12 January 1920, accepted ‘ahd-ı milli declaration’ in closed session.

Istanbul was invaded. Soldiers of Allies blockaded the assembly building and arrested some deputies. Communication channels were stopped. Some railways were destroyed to prevent arm transfer to Anatolia.

Opening of National Assembly

As Ottoman assembly was abolished, a new assembly was required. Most of delegations went to Ankara in silence. TBMM (Turkish Grand National Assembly) convened with the leadership of Ankara on 23 April. Mustafa Kemal was elected as chairperson of the parliament who took control of Turkey Administration.

Karabekir Pasha walked to Armenia.

Treaty of Sèvres

World War 1 and Fronts where Mustafa Kemal Pasha Fought One of the important Turkish lieutenants fought in World War 1 is Mustafa Kemal Pasha. Mustafa Kemal Pasha took charge in Eastern (Caucasian) Front, Syria-Palestine Front and Çanakkale Front in World War 1 actively and efficiently

Greek army, which advanced into Anatolia, took offensive in January, 1921.

1St Inonu victory was achieved.

Greek army which wanted to take advantage of Çerkes Ethem Revolt, left Bursa to invade Ankara. When the enemy was defeated in Inonu, reputation of TBMM increased. Allies had to hold a conference in London to discuss Sevres again.

Teşkilat-i Esasiye kanunu (Turkish Constitution of 1921) was admitted. Basic articles of the law were as follows: ‘Sovereignty is vested in the nation without condition. The governmental system is based on the principle of self-determination and government by the people. Executive power and legislative responsibility is exercised by and concentrated in the hands of the Grand National Assembly which is the sole and real representative of the nation. The Turkish State is governed by the Grand National Assembly (Büyük Millet Meclisi) and its government is entitled 'the Government of Grand National Assembly' (Büyük Millet Meclisi Hükûmeti).

Greece stated to attack Eskişehir through Bursa and Afyon through Uşak on 23 March 1921. Turkish forces, empowered by sending a guard battalion to the front, pulled back the enemy. Greek army was defeated for the second time in Inonu on 1 April 1921. As a result of the battle, all European countries accepted the presence of TBMM government.

When Kütahya-Eskişehir battles were lost, the army got into a jam. It was decided that troops of west front would withdraw to the east of Sakarya River. Attack of Greece started om 23 August. Mustafa Kemal ordered that “There is no line of defense. There is a plain of defense. This plain is the whole country. Not an inch of the country should be abandoned until it was drenched with the blood of the citizens.”

After Sakarya victory, Mustafa Kemal was granted with Marshall rank and veteran title by TBMM.

Turkish Nation declared victory as a result of Battle of Dumlupınar started on 26 August 1922 and ended on August 30 as Mustafa Kemal was supreme military commander.

Great Turkish Army, formed by Great Turkish Nation was leaded by Veteran Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his fellow fighters, and liberated İzmir from the enemy.